The connections between people and the outdoor environment are not always immediately obvious. It has been noted numerous times, for instance, that in periods of high stress or disaster people, specifically, and communities, in general, seek out and create avenues of sudden nature exposure, or, as it is termed by (Tidball, 2012), express “Urgent Biophilia.” Many communities forced into immediate distress by either natural or man-made disasters focus suddenly on greening a place through an increase in urban gardening, tree planting or other environmental stewardship. Numerous war veterans find relief in gardening. Gardening is also an established therapeutic activity for people who experience autism. (Louv, 2005). In short, high stress seems to bring out a need to connect or “…an affinity for other living things…” (Kellert and Wilson 1993).
As in the diagram copied below, Tidball proposes that the stress release creates a “back loop” (the green areas of the cyclic ribbon) in which those times during and just after the greatest stress are the times of the most urgent biophilia. He proposes further that conservation or environmentally-minded legislation (an investment in policies that protect the environment) tends to sit within those periods of community involvement. This space is where humans try to find direction to demonstrate resilience and adaption in times of crises.
That this demonstration of resilience is frequently expressed through nature exposure is worthy of note.
Nature Education vs Nature Awareness
It is a popular thought in environmental/ecology education that involving people in the outdoors gives them a real grasp of the nature of the environment and their place in it. In theory, it also gives learners a chance to develop numerous layers of higher level thinking, as supported by authors like (Spellman et al. 2015). While evidence of this, by and large, seems to be proven true by many, the ability to relate experiences of the (wild) outdoors to urban life frequently seems a difficult connection to make. Many environmental programs that take learners to the distant outdoors and far off farms find that, while on the individual level learners often make deep personal discoveries, the ecological/environmental connections in their daily life are not discovered. ‘Environment’ and ‘outside’ get termed far away and not ‘here‘, by urban learners. Many organizations have found, however, that exposing these same learners to the environmental community near them (i.e., local community gardens, park stewardship, urban waterway health monitoring and general urban environment/nature exploration) not only proffers an easy connection to self and environment but also promotes a sense of environmental responsibility and stewardship (Kransy and Tidball 2010).
Discussions and teachings about ecological/environmental learning benefit from an awareness that the types of connections people make with nature and the environment need to be proximate and pertinent to the world the learners live in. Otherwise ‘environments’ are seen as ‘out there’ and not as affecting the individual. Communities where environmental education programs are implemented and thoughtfully intertwined with local activity lead to better community/environmental stewardship.
This brief discussion is just meant to lightly illustrate that at our best we are creatures of our environment and our success/survival depends on keeping in mind where that environment/our safety net is. Divorcing ourselves from understanding that the environment is not just out there but right here cuts the strings to a significant resource in education and wellness, just under our feet.
Kellert, S. R., & Wilson, E. O. (Eds.). (1995).The biophilia hypothesis. Island Press.
Krasny, M. E & Tidball, K. G., (2010). Urban environmental education from a social-ecological perspective: Conceptual framework for civic ecology education. Cities and the Environment (CATE), 3(1), 11.
(Louv, R. (2005). Last child in the woods: Saving our children from nature-deficit disorder. Algonquin Books.
(Spellman et al. 2015)
Spellman, K. V., Deutsch, A., Mulder, C. P., & Carsten‐Conner, L. D. (2016). Metacognitive learning in the ecology classroom: A tool for preparing problem solvers in a time of rapid change?. Ecosphere, 7(8).
Tidball, K. (2012). Urgent biophilia: human-nature interactions and biological attractions in disaster resilience. Ecology and Society, 17(2).
This post will expand upon Banafsheh Khakipoor and my experience at DigiFabCon (www.digifabcon.org) held in Boston, MA in March 30 – April 1, 2017. For those unfamiliar with makerspaces, they are a place where people with fabrication, computing or technology interests can gather to work on projects sharing ideas, equipment, and knowledge. The convention attendees were a mixture mostly composed of makerspace enthusiasts, educators, and professionals. DigiFabCon offered two days of lectures and a day of hands-on workshops held at local Boston makerspaces. I will reflect upon my experience of bringing biomimicry into makerspaces in a practical manner.
Last week was Spring break and we had this great opportunity of going and presenting in digiFAB conference in Boston about Biomimicry through one of my Sponsors TIES! Lots happened and I was excited to meet some great people in the field and had butterflies about my own talk. My excitement was doubled and butterflies gone with keynote speaker, Sherry Lassiter director of Fab Foundation, You can see her in picture below talking about different movements within Fab Foundation as well as the Fab network.
Dale Dougherty, then talked about Maker movements, I have been following Dale’s maker group (he runs the Make: which you can subscribe to) and was thrilled when he talked about “Autonomous Boat [that] Went from California to Hawaii and Beyond”. I read about this project when first published in Make: and was happy that the boat had been picked up by a ship in New Zealand and was in display there.
The 2 day conference was packed by amazing talks, I like to shortly go through few of them.
FAB City A 40 year goal from Barcelona to empower citizens to be creators of their own city; “locally self-sufficient and globally connected”. For me, it seemed as a society that doesn’t need a centralized governing body, but where citizens create materials based on their needs, recycle when possible and are connected to many more cities around the globe.
Tomas Diaz from FABCity also talked about the model and plans they have to reach this goal in Barcelona. he talked about POBLENOU where its supported by local and international community to become a FAB city.
Rachel Ignotofsky; Women in Science , and the importance of design and arts in our life, how arts influences our perceptions and why is it important to use it in our learning kits.
3D printes, bluedragon made with business in mind, where you can print 4 colors in one product, you can mix different colors into one or just use one at a time: FIREPRINT. If anyone wants to put money together to get one, I am in! Check out their case studies, from combating Zika to cosplay, you can do all!
Second day was nothing short of amazing talks as well, we first heard from Neil Gershenfeld, Director, MIT Center for Bits and Atoms, of his work on developing tools/processes for FABLAB, I did not see it coming where he talked about Nature! In below picture he was explaining how creating modules is similar to protein formation in our body.
He also talked about how we are moving to Ubiquitous and with these changes, how his lab is working on developing the tools, materials, to functional part.
And one of my favorites; Global Humanitarian Lab, talk by David Ott, Co-founder, Where they aim to bring FABKits (costing around < $10k) to refugee camps. David talked about what would be in the FABKits and how everything needs to be packed into container that could be transferred by 1 or 2 person. He talked about limitations, needs and potentials of these labs. He talked about makers/ people who need the opportunities we easily can access in our cities.
There was many more talks which I highly recommend attending. This year, there was an addition of having workshops and we had ours on Biomimicry in Artisan’s Asylum in Somerville. Another place to put in your places to go!
So What did we talk about! We talked on first day about Spiders and Ornilux, Tardigrades, Spikemoss and Stabilitech/Biomateria and How they relate to maker group! As we grow in FAB network and as we move toward FAB cities, Can we benefit from nature’s stories? Can we learn from 3.8 billion years of lessons? Our hope is to learn and make more sustainable decisions. Either in creating new FAB equipments, or materials used. We see a movement that will grow potentially in years to come and we want to instill biomimicry thinking in its foundation!
My name is Elena Stachew and as of January 2017, I am the Biomimicry PhD Fellow for Biohabitats, Cleveland Water Alliance (CWA) and Ohio Department of Natural Resources (ODNR). Check out my biography here. Although every fellow’s schedule is unique, we each have to balance our time between sponsor(s), research and other program responsibilities. Though I am still learning the ins and outs, I thought I would give a better sense of what that balance can look like by describing my typical week as a new fellow:
- Mondays & Tuesdays – Biohabitats office
Living in Cleveland, I love the start of the week as my commute is just to the opposite side of town, in Little Italy – University Circle. I haven’t started taking Cleveland’s rail line (RTA) yet, but I plan to soon in order to cut down on driving. Biohabitats Great Lakes Regional Office is housed in Murray Hill Galleries, an old school building converted into a hodgepodge of art galleries, boutique shops, law & architect firms, music studios and a yoga studio. I also enjoy being close to my alma mater, Case Western Reserve University, as I am able to meet former professors and colleagues for lunch on occasion!
On Mondays, Biohabitats has morning weekly staff meetings and in the afternoons, I have a weekly check in with Chris Streb, an ecological engineer and Bioworks team lead based in the Baltimore office, by phone. Bioworks is Biohabitats’ research, development and innovation arm, learn more here.
Only just shy of two months in, I take the days in the office to:
- Review literature on ecosystem services and metrics,
- Learn the Biohabitats consulting practice areas of ecological restoration, landscape architecture and regenerative design,
- Talk with interested employees about their level of knowledge in biomimicry and active projects,
- Explore Biohabitats Technical Resources library,
- And read through my RSS feeds and Google alerts on biomimicry and other relevant topics.
If I find an article on biomimicry interesting and/or relevant, I post on Yammer – a Microsoft social network collaborative platform that Biohabitats uses.
My days involve a lot of reading and asking questions, and the first month involved several meetings with my three sponsors, but eventually, I’ll try my hand at applying biomimicry thinking to an active restoration, urban design or stormwater management project, post exploratory topics on Biohabitats Rhizome Blog or Leaf Litter quarterly newsletter, and host Brain Gardens and Walkabouts (Biohabitats terms for ‘lunch n’ learns’ and ‘end of the day brainstorming’ respectively).
I am also learning Biohabitats entire project process from client proposal submission to post-project monitoring in order to better understand how to add biomimicry as a value-added service. I was recently able to participate in an interview for the City of Cuyahoga Falls of Biohabitats design proposal for an ecological restoration project on Kelsey Creek.
I have also traveled some, to ODNR’s Office of Coastal Management in Sandusky and Biohabitats’ corporate headquarters in Baltimore, Maryland.
I snapped a few photos of their beautiful headquarters during my visit. One is shown here. There were so many plants; I immediately felt as if I walked into a botanical garden!
- Wednesdays– Environmental Engineering Design & Biohabitats
Wednesday mornings, I have a class in Environmental Engineering Design at the University of Akron. The commute is 45 minutes to an hour. The class is about drinking water and wastewater treatment systems, and last week, I completed a group design project on a proposal for a groundwater treatment system of chlorinated solvents. I generally give myself an hour after class for any meetings scheduled with professors as I am still figuring out my adviser and advisory committee, then I drive back to Biohabitats to finish out the remainder of the work day. The last two weeks were an exception (hence the word – ‘typical’), as I needed more time on campus during the week to meet with my fellow classmates to work on this design project.
- Thursdays & Fridays – University of Akron
Thursday afternoons, I have a class in Biomimicry Design & Application, where we are exploring bio-inspired ways to improve exercise equipment on long-term spaceflight missions in partnership with NASA Glenn Research Center’s Human Research Program. I come in late Thursday mornings to spend time on class readings and homework, meet with students in my classes for our design projects, as well as professors re: advisory committee and potential thesis topics.
Fridays, I have Environmental Engineering Design in the morning, followed by our afternoon Integrated Biosciences (IB) guest lecture series. I’ve heard interesting presentations on swarm intelligence, fish locomotion, architectural production using robotics and applied biomimicry. We are also able to participate in student lunches with our guest speakers before their lecture.
This past week, I helped organize the schedule of guest lecturer Julian Vincent, a retired professor from the University of Oxford active in the ontologies of biomimicry. See the following recent article for an overview of the topic: The trade-off- a central concept in biomimetics – published in 2016 by Bioinspired, Biomimetic
and Nanobiomaterials. I helped with the logistics of an all-day ontologies workshop followed by dinner, and a visit to Cleveland Institute of Art and discussion with Doug Paige, an industrial design professor and faculty partner in the Biomimicry Fellowship Program at the University of Akron.
As my schedule allows (which isn’t much!) and per my graduate student contract, I also serve as a QA/QC Contract Technician for the nuclear division of Five Star Products – a vestige of my former working life. The company manufactures safety-related concrete & grout products in Chardon, OH for nuclear power plants, for use in the construction of reactor bases, secondary containment and cooling towers.
I hope this gives you, the readers, a sense of how crazy yet exciting the life of a Biomimicry PhD Fellow can be! I am looking forward to the summer, in which I’ll have more time to spend with my three sponsors. The plan is to continue to explore potential thesis topics and learn how to connect my eventual thesis with my sponsor work program in the form of applied and practical research.
Look for more updates on this blog in the future, and feel free to connect with me on LinkedIn. Cheers and I look forward to the journey ahead!
What is programming and what are algorithms? Can we foster an interest in them for anyone who finds programming to be a black box? Can biomimicry help? These are the questions I’m playing around with these days. Can reference to nature take courses in logical thinking beyond typical lessons in sequences, If/Else statements and loops? . I watched The Secret Rules Of Modern Living: Algorithms(trailer) and The Code (trailer) on Netflix over the weekend, still have to finish the code, and I kept thinking ‘wow this is brilliant! I can do this!’ I also got to know about an online course on Teaching Physical Computing with Raspberry Pi through my sponsor TIES and going through it has been very interesting (Raspberry Pi is a mini, cheap computer, not a literal raspberry pie :D, inside joke!),. It led me to Scratch which helps young people learn programming.
Next, I have been thinking; Do I want to teach programming or algorithm development. The answer seems to be easy, because a way to keep someone engaged is to have results and programming is what gives algorithms an outcome. Yet, algorithms can be developed without any computer, while programs need to be written on a computer of some sort in a language (considering analog here as well). Also, it seems to me creating a lesson is different than what I want to do, which is produce a software/piece of a machine. For example, a biomimicry lesson could be similar to an exercise on learning about birds and nesting to come up with the algorithm they use. Instead of an abstract lesson, I want to deliver something students can touch and use hopefully without much outside help. That is not to say, my deliverable cannot involve students going out and experiencing nature while working on/with my product. However, my product needs to be a software and/or a hardware that is attractive, engaging by using nature’s life lessons to teach programming/algorithms to the user.
I can see how nature is brilliant for my task; it has millions of algorithms to teach and we have been learning them for quite a while in the computer science world. My goal is to bring those lessons to the general public. At the end of The Secret Rules Of Modern Living: Algorithms movie, narrator Marcus du Sautoy mentions how our world wouldn’t function without the power of algorithms and I think that’s absolutely true! As we rely on them greatly, how can we increase everyone’s interest in them?
Market-pull innovation is driven by customer needs. Demand for a solution to a problem triggers its development. For example, the digital camera was invented because customers grew impatient waiting for film to be developed, and expressed desire to be able to view their photos instantaneously. The philosophy behind a market-pull innovation strategy is encapsulated in the familiar adage, “necessity is the mother of invention.” Problem-driven biomimicry, comprising the following five iterative steps, can support market-pull innovation:
What’s New In The World Of Fashion Tech?
That question was amply answered at the Kent State 2017 Fashion Tech Hackathon1 held this last weekend.This annual event gathers students, professionals, and many cutting-edge experts from across America, in an attempt to innovate fast and dirty practical applications of fashion and technology. The goal is to step beyond the traditional ideas of wearable tech and invent something that does more than simply blink. The idea is to get fashion tech inventors to delve into what it means to really live and function in the world as they work.
- What about the garment’s appearance rises above the basic, superficial level?
- What does it do?
- What new way do we have of looking at accouterments differently than what exists already?
- Equally important, how can we use what already exists in a completely new and more connected way?
Supported this year by Major League Hacking, various tech experts and professionals worked with inventors as mentors to guide groups to discover broader, deeper potential in the available technology and materials. Biomimicry made its introduction into the Fashion Tech Hackathon venue thanks to a PechaKucha presented by Great Lakes Biomimicry (GLBio)2 and here-all-weekend consults offered by GLBio and myself, as University of Akron education fellow. “…Biomimicry blows the inspiration-set wide open,” declared Stephanie Diane Pierce, GLBio’s Director of Creativity, Tools and Process (and incidentally, my wife, aka, Steph). It was a statement many of the groups came to understand during the one-on-one consultations throughout the event, and several of the projects developed for presentation Sunday showed that the inventors had taken the sentiments to heart.
Naser Madi’s Hermês paragliding helmet, with its active reading, reporting, and display of mental fatigue3, GPS location, current weather patterns, altitude, and speakers took several awards. Madi added bat ears to the helmet following his biomimicry discussion, to display his discoveries about bat & owl ear apertures and his hope of refining the altitude, air-stream sensing and landing support with further research and application of biomimetic properties.
In the 36-hours allotted, Abeona group, who also took a first prize, developed a (Re)-Connect themed hiking jacket from concept to prototype, whose purpose was “…to allow total immersion into nature so technology supports it and doesn’t detract,” according to the group spokeswoman. The breathable jacket boasted an altitude sensor, pedometer, heart rate monitor, and compass located on a small-screen sleeve display. The compass also had a haptic function as a vibration in the upper arm, which occurred if the individual steered away from a determined course and which continued until the proper direction was found. The jacket’s shoulders contained flexible solar panels that charged the phone (which was then kept in a pocket, since the idea was to experience nature and not the tech). The unique business plan for these jackets was to have individuals rent the garment so that as time went on they could be updated and old materials could be stripped and re-used in closer to a closed-loop cycle4 – “We plan to recycle not only the fibers, but the technological nutrients.”
Moon Flower group created a bracelet which charts a woman’s monthly cycle. The connected app allows the wearer to track the menstrual and ovulation cycles, sexual activity, symptoms and emotions, to help cultivate supportive relationships and better the wearer’s well-being.5
Cat Call group created a concept shirt for those who suffer from extreme social anxiety or panic attacks. The intent of the shirt is to measure heart rate and stress, to notify friends and family on a preset list. The final prototype will contain haptic responses of increased weight on shoulders during time of stress and the team shared an intent to explore inclusion of an octave vibration of between 25 and 1506 to comfort the wearer, following their consultation.
Three groups from various high-schools demoed products they had created. GLBio and the University of Akron Bath Field Station have partnered with Buchtel Community Learning Centers on a series of Ohio Environmental Fund-supported biomimicry field trips to the Bath Nature Preserve and Panzner Wetland. The Martha Holden Jennings Family Foundation awarded a grant to support GLBio and Buchtel High School learners from the BRAIN program, Biostatistics Research and Awareness Network, Inc., founded by Lillian Prince7, to further some work branching from those efforts: To strengthen a community of practice working to gamify the Biomimicry Habits of Thought© and to introduce high school and college students to biomimicry at two upcoming hackathons in the process.
As practice for the first hackathon in the spring, two Buchtel High School BRAIN program learners, Nasieur and Naudia Harris, volunteered to venture into KSU’s as their first hackathon! After 36 exhausting hours, nearing completion on the last day, these Buchtel CLC learners presented on a concept centered in MUSIC, with wearable volume control via smart phone and bluetooth device, called Fashion On Mars.
From on-site mentors the young women learned how to run an AEIOU design framework, found that their own logo could be digitized and embroidered via computer, were introduced to Thingiverse to print a selected and re-sized 3D component, began to learn to solder, discovered a bit about how and where to find and adapt code to run their Arduino board, were introduced to the words ‘slap-happy’ (in the wee hours of day one, when the phrase seemed truly hysterical), worked to engineer their soft-membrane, slide potentiometer into the product, and discovered, of course, what biomimicry can bring to a hack. “This has been the most wonderful experience of my life,” Nasieur told her sister, in the early morning on day three, when both ladies were somehow still going strong.
A remarkably enjoyable hackathon! The numerous ideas carried out to comprehensive prototype was slightly staggering. Many products created this weekend seem likely to be carried to the next stage.
2The Biomimicry PechaKucha begins at minute 19 https://boxcast.tv/view/fashion-tech-hackathon-opening-ceremony-248843, followed by brilliant presentations regarding potential fashion technology in (dis)Ability support and material science.
3Madi explained, the leading cause of paragliding accidents occur where the mind becomes tired while the body remains largely rested so that awareness and reaction time are drastically slowed. Since the body still has energy the brain generally doesn’t recognize that mental fatigue is critical.
4Natural Principles: Evolve to Survive, Recycle All Components and Be Resource Efficient (Material and Energy). https://biomimicry.net/the-buzz/resources/designlens-lifes-principles/
5The operating conditions and natural patterns or principles of design recognized by many include cyclic processes and cultivating relationships of support.
6The same octave of a cat’s purr, which has been shown to increase relaxation and healing rates.
This past Saturday, January 21, 2017, millions of people marched in support of women’s rights (and civil rights in general) as a response to the oppressive and misogynist messages coming from the new Administration. What started as a centralised march for women in Washington D.C. initially organised for 200,000 quickly grew to approximately 1.3 million in D.C. and 3.5 million collectively with marches occurring all over the world on every continent (yes – including Antarctica). This is an impressive display for a civil rights movement, yet especially in these times, the event(s) is not without its critics and detractors; the main critique being that this is an ad-hoc event and no change will transpire as a result. Yet as we look to hindsight of the march, we see that much of the march fit within biomimicry principles and in order to keep the momentum moving forward, there are lessons we can learn from nature to keep the march and message a success. For those unfamiliar with Biomimicry 3.8’s Life’s Principles, they are essentially nature’s design blueprints – a set of commonly evolved strategies that have emerged over billions of years.
The march initially started as an idea with the leadership of four main women (and one very intelligent male), yet even within that small subset of leadership, diversity was intentionally incorporated into the foundation and philosophy of the movement. The grassroots movement, carrying the ethos of diversity, was built from the bottom up, and as it grew, it was necessary to decentralise the leadership (yet keep it hierarchically nested) – and still diverse, allowing the message to naturally resonate and pick up along the various decentralised networks where locally attuned and responsive people were ready to leverage local resources and processes. Further, because of the hyper-speed at which such a massive event was conceived of, organized, and carried out – on the heels of another logistical (and policy-wise) nightmare, the information coming from the march leadership changed constantly; the decentralized networks thus incorporated an adaptive, flexible, and ecological resilience approach to the streams of information – always moving forward with plans, yet tacking and changing accordingly. The result was a stunning, peaceful display of solidarity at the D.C. and sister marches around the world.
So now that the initial march is complete, what can we learn from nature in order to carry on the success? Let’s quickly look at the adaptive cycle in panarchy theory. Briefly – where Life’s Principles can help us explain common strategies within nature, Panarchy Theory and the adaptive cycle is a conceptual model to help understand entire ecosystem process dynamics and the cross-scale interactions within and across nested hierarchies. Life’s Principles can help us design sustainable, biomimetic solutions; the adaptive cycle helps us understand the dynamic structure and flux of complex adaptive systems.
The adaptive cycle
The adaptive cycle is a conceptual model of dynamic processes of ecosystems which focus mainly on growth, conservation, collapse, and reorganisation, with particular consideration given to transitions. As of now, capital and resources have “grown” and accumulated (“conservation”) to the point of “release” (the march). The capital and resources are currently in the process of reorganisation. This period of reshuffling information is the perfect time to replicate the strategies that work, toss out the ones that didn’t, and incorporate new, unanticipated novelty into the next iteration of the “Women’s March movement ecosystem” to insure institutionalised learning. We currently don’t know what the next iteration will look like and despite some having a feeling of unease from uncertainty…know that that’s OK – we know we’re in a natural process of reshuffling and reorganizing resources.
Social foraging behaviour can provide additional insights. Leaning on Giraldeau’s work on behavioural ecology, we recognize that individual learning of naïve beings (be it birds, bonobos, or humans) occur through observing group behaviours and thus cultural transmission of ideas and novel innovations transpire. Learning and cultural transmission occurred not only through naïve individuals observing the processes and messages, but also crossing geopolitical boundaries.
#WokeBaby taking part in cultural transmission through group observational behaviours
One final observation: much like a bee hive or an ant or termite colony, the Women’s March on Washington movement could be classified as a Superorganism: where individual women (and enlightened men) form a distributed intelligence network where, like systems theory, the whole is greater than the sum of its parts to accomplish group goals – where emergent properties materialize to achieve far more than could initially have thought possible. This is the ‘magic’ of complex adaptive (superorganism) systems. The women’s march will be a continued success if the emergent properties are nurtured and kept alive. We just have to continue to follow nature’s lead.
Dear GermiNature readers,
This is the second to last (if not the last) blog post that I’ll write on GermiNature; therefore, I would like to take the time to reflect on what I have accomplished and gained in the past five years. Continue reading
“Plants are amazing!” This is something I hear a lot from non-botanists. Of course, I know plants are awesome, but every time I turn around, I learn something new and exciting. This semester was no exception. Tasked with a project in my Biomimetic Design class, led by Dr. Petra Gruber, I walked into the meadow to find inspiration– literally.
On a very wet, cold, rainy day in October, I walked to a meadow within our field station property (Bath Nature Preserve, Bath Twp., Akron, Ohio) and found a section to investigate. Indian grass (Sorghastrum nutans) towering over my head, I decided to stop at 20 steps and set up a 1m x 1m plot to sample. October in a meadow doesn’t give you very much to identify, but goldenrod (Solidago spp.) and Indian grass (S. nutans) were plentiful among a few baby asters, Galium spp. (aka ‘Cleavers’ or ‘Bedstraw’), wild strawberry (Fragaria virginiana),clumps of unidentifiable grass and moss. I measured heights of stems and area covered, took the percent coverage to determine how much each species covered the plot,and took several picture views for record. After returning to campus, I created a hand-drawn schematic of the plot.
A few weeks later, I returned to the same plot. Apparently my methods of counting and direction are spot-on because my last step landed on a pen I had dropped on that rainy day a few weeks earlier! If you’ve ever done field work, you understand how amazing it is that I found a PEN in the middle of a meadow over 2 meters high! This time I was there to measure the ability of the meadow to hold a load. I admit, I didn’t think the stems would hold up… being so late in the year and being dried out. As usual, though, plants are amazing and surprised me yet again!
I decided to test the load by creating a 1m x 1m foam board that was sturdy, yet lightweight. I placed the board directly over the plot, placing flags on each corner. The flags allowed for a visual cue to observe movement of bot
h plants and the board, as well as giving a reference point at which to measure the height of the board after each addition of weight. After the foam board was placed on top of the plants, I measured the height at each corner (flag) for the “initial” height. I added one heavy book and measured the height at each corner. Subsequently, I added increasing weight and measured the heights. At 3 books (6.7kg), the system (the meadow plot) could no longer hold the weight. Because this was the same plants were used over the entire experiment, I believe more weight can be held by the plants in true form.
So how does this happen? Plants are amazing. In the meadow, plants grow up to 10 feet below ground (roots) and above ground. You can imagine how secure this makes these cantilever beams! Here, the Indian grass and Goldenrod grew 1.5m to 2.5m above ground. The stems reached diameters of 2-5mm. You may wonder how the stems did not break when the weight was added. Galileo was the first to record these observations, noting that bending is resisted in the outer layers, not the inner stem as some might think. Several studies have investigated this design, including F.O. Bower (1930) who compared plant stems to concrete, saying, “Ordinary herbaceous plants are constructed on the same principle. The sclerotic strands correspond to the metal straps, the surroundin
g parenchyma with its turgescent cells corresponds mechanically to the concrete.” Equisetum (Horsetail) is another champion plant for many reasons, but here, in this context, it’s a biomechanic superstar. “The hollow stem of Equisetum giganteum owes its mechanical stability to an outer ring of strengthening tissue, which provides stiffness and strength in the longitudinal direction, but also to an inner lining of turgid parenchyma, which lends resistance to local buckling. With a height >2.5 m isolated stems are mechanically unstable. However, in dense stands individual stems support each other by interlacing with their side branches, the typical growth habit of semi-self-supporters.” (Spatz, Kohler, Speck 1998). Again, plants are amazing.
After doing some mathematical calculations (very much estimated
in this case because of the imprecise nature of this ‘experiment’), it is expected that a single Goldenrod stem can support >118% of its biomass! Now, we’re not talking about the strength of steel or lead, but we can see that plants offer us new possibilities when we are designing or constructing new things! Imagine a support feature that is hollow inside and allows for storage in the “stem” as well has having the strength to support weight. Think on a smaller scale: imagine a space in which a stiff, lightweight outer covering is needed to secure something. Imagine the many possibilities that plants offer us to grow using Life’s Principles.